Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Negative energy balance occurs when the cow is mobilizing body fat (condition) faster than the liver is able to metabolize it. In order for the liver to normally metabolize that fat, glucose is required. If glucose availability is limited due to inadequate substrate or glucose production via glycogenesis is inadequate or impaired, then ketosis can result because of the …
Selenium is an essential trace element for ruminants. It is required in cattle for normal growth and fertility and for helping to prevent other health disorders such as mastitis and calf scours. Many pastures are short in natural selenium levels. Therefore, cattle should be supplemented with selenium. The level of selenium in the pasture is dependent on the level of selenium in the soil. Pastures have the lowest levels of selenium occurring in the spring and summer.
It is fundamentally important to address pain for the animal’s benefit and production efficiency. Noticing early physiological and behavioral changes can help producers recognize problems before the pain becomes chronic or debilitating. For example, when calves are dehorned and in pain, they will flick their ears and shake their heads repeatedly. Noticing these behavioral changes, along with redness and warmth of horn buds, gives producers the opportunity to manage calf pain and decrease the risk of future health challenges, like scours.