When should colostrum be fed to calves and for how long? When to adjust calf nutrition is determined by rumen development. Learn more.
Heat stress can cause many issues for the cows and the farmer. How do we prevent heat stress in cattle? Water consumption and housing ventilation can be great combat methods for heat stress in dairy cattle.
Energy is required for every single biological reaction in the body. Without adequate energy intake, vital organs do not operate properly; cells do not multiply, bones and muscle tissue do not grow, the mammary gland does not produce milk, and reproduction is halted. Energy is essential for maintenance, growth, health, lactation, reproduction, and gestation.
Maintenances are the metabolic processes, such as heartbeat, brain activity, respiration, and other vital functions. Physical activity is also classified as maintenance.
Goats are small ruminant animals that have no upper incisors or canine teeth but a dental pad instead. The rumen is the largest part of the four stomach compartments, with a capacity of roughly 2-6 pounds. Some bacteria and protozoa are normal habitants of the rumen which break down food into volatile fatty acids along with vitamins and amino acids. Daily feed take of goats ranges from 3-4% of body weight as expressed in pounds (dry matter/head/day).
Summer heat and humidity can create the ideal environment for mastitis-causing pathogens to grow. In addition, intense heat can cause the cow to become stressed which results in lowering the immune system function. These two factors together create the perfect storm for mastitis to take a toll on the herd.
Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease for dairy producers. Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that is usually caused by bacteria that enter the gland through the teat end.
It is fundamentally important to address pain for the animal’s benefit and production efficiency. Noticing early physiological and behavioral changes can help producers recognize problems before the pain becomes chronic or debilitating. For example, when calves are dehorned and in pain, they will flick their ears and shake their heads repeatedly. Noticing these behavioral changes, along with redness and warmth of horn buds, gives producers the opportunity to manage calf pain and decrease the risk of future health challenges, like scours.
It is estimated that approximately 20% of lameness in cattle – dairy and beef is attributed to foot rot. Foot rot is an infectious condition that causes swelling, heat, and inflammation in cattle’s feet, resulting in severe lameness. Bacteria are responsible for causing foot rot. Fusobacterium necrphorum is the main foot rot causing bacterium. All the foot rot-causing microbes are mainly anaerobic, meaning they thrive in an environment without oxygen. Many of these bacteria are found in feces, so even healthy feet are present with bacteria.