Egg Production | Bailey’s Bit About Nutrition

The Effects of Sunlight on Laying Hens 

As the days get shorter, egg production starts to decline. Hens need a certain amount of daylight in order to maintain peak egg-laying. A hen’s reproductive cycle is controlled by photoperiod, or light exposure. Hens require at least 14 hours of light per day to lay eggs. They produce eggs at a maximum rate with 16 hours of light exposure. Once daylight is less than 12 hours, egg production slows down considerably if not ceasing completely. The hen’s pineal gland produces melatonin, which helps regulate sleep and other body functions. As the days lengthen, her pineal gland responds by sending a hormone through her body to her ovary to start producing eggs. As the days shorten, the pineal gland stops sending this hormone. Since the gland is light- sensitive, you can fool it by increasing the amount of light available to the hen during the fall and winter. To fool the pineal gland, you can use artificial light. Use incandescent bulbs rather than fluorescent lights, as the wavelengths of incandescent bulbs are closer to those of natural sunlight. Put the bulb on a timer so it goes on in the dark hours of the morning rather than at nighttime. Set the timer so that hens have only eight hours of darkness. For example, if the sun sets at 5PM, set the timer so that the light goes on at 8AM. 


How an Egg is Made

A laying hen’s ovary holds thousands of tiny ova, or future egg yolks. Birds are unique among animals because only one ovary (the left) matures to the stage where it releases eggs. When a yolk is ready, it moves out of the ovary an d into the oviduct – a tube- like structure that is divided into different sections. Over four hours, the yolk moves through an area of the oviduct called the magnum where egg white protein is added to it. There are many different proteins that make up the egg white. The different protein layers provide protection for the yolk and create a template for the formation of the shell membrane and shell. After quickly moving through a section called the isthmus where shell membrane fibers are produced, the egg enters the shell gland where the shell forms over about 20 hours. The process is called calcification as layers of calcium carbonate are added to form the shell. During the last two hours of shell formation the bulk of the pigment (white or brown) is produced and deposited into the outer layer of the shell. This includes the cuticle which is laid down to provide protection against bacteria that might try to penetrate the shell and potential loss of water from the egg contents. The egg then rotates just before the laying to be laid large end first, having moved through the oviduct small end first.

Product of the Week: “O” Poultry Premix

“O” Poultry Premix is a complete vitamin and mineral premix package designed to meet the specific nutritional needs of poultry.

  • Contains sulfate forms of trace
  • Meets daily vitamin needs, including vitamins A, D3, E, and B complex.
  • Supplies most major mineral nutrients – calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and chloride.

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Probiotics for Dairy Cattle | Bailey’s Bit About Nutrition

A probiotic is defined as “live-organisms which, when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health effect on the host.” There are two general classes of probiotics: fungi and bacteria. Fungal probiotics are primarily live yeast. Probiotic yeasts work within the rumen to improve fermentation, scavenge oxygen, stabilize rumen pH, improve fiber digestion, and increase microbial growth. Probiotic yeasts remove oxygen (scavenge oxygen) from the rumen and provide a better anaerobic environment for bacterial growth. The anaerobic environment helps in the protection of rumen bacteria from damage by oxygen and stimulation of growth of cellulose-degrading bacteria.

Bacterial probiotics have three primary modes of action:

  1. The first is through competitive attachment, which prevents pathogens from binding to the gut wall.
  2. The second mode of action is an antibacterial-like effect in which they can help reduce pathogens in the intestine.
  3. The final mode of action is the modulation of an immune response, improving the host’s response to disease.

The gastrointestinal tract provides many roles in the animal’s life. It is where the feed is digested, and nutrients are absorbed. It is also approximately 75 percent of the immune system. Epithelial junctions between cells, a mucous layer, immunoglobins and antimicrobial peptides all make up the intestinal defense system. When the barrier is disrupted, pathogens can damage the lining of the intestine and induce inflammation. Probiotics can impact this defense system by regulating and modulating different inflammatory processes. These probiotic bacteria use several different methods to support barrier formation and prevent competitive attachment of pathogens. Probiotics can regulate genes responsible for the tight junctions between epithelial cells within the gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics also increase the amount of mucous secretion in the gastrointestinal tract. Some probiotics are known to alter the composition of mucus, preventing pathogen binding. Many benefits come from using probiotics in animal feedings. Using probiotics seems to improve gut microbiota composition, immune response, nutrient digestibility and absorption animal growth, milk production, and meat quality. 


Product of the Week: “O” PYK and PYK 

Our “O” PYK and PYK blend is a probiotic, yeast and kelp combination specifically designed to maximize digestive tract health and efficiency in all livestock. “O” PYK is allowed for use of organic farms – check with your local organic certifying agency for acceptance before using this or any feed supplement.

Product Characteristics

  • Contains live, beneficial bacteria (including Lactobacillus acidophilus) and live yeast cells.
  • Provides digestive enzymes.
  • Contains Icelandic kelp as a source of over 60 trace minerals and vitamins.
  • Helps improve fiber digestion, reproduction, immune system function and hoof health.

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Internal Parasites in Sheep & Goats | Bailey’s Bit About Nutrition

Gastrointestinal parasites cause significant economic losses and are listed in the top three fatal conditions in sheep and goats. Parasites cause disease when they are present in large numbers or when the host animal is weakened by another disease or by poor nutrition. Damage to the host occurs when parasites attach to the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and ingest blood – large numbers of parasites can create anemia from blood loss. Damage can also occur from other parasites when they either attach to the lining of the gastrointestinal tract and cause it to become inflamed, or they live in the lumen (open area) of the gastrointestinal tract and have access to ingested feed nutrients before the host can digest them. This can result in the impaired ability of the host animal to absorb nutrients, causing poor body condition (thinness), poor growth rates, low milk production, and/or poor hair coat or fleece growth. Some parasites cause a reduction in appetite in the host animal.

To understand how parasites are spread from animal to animal, you have to understand the parasites’ life-cycle. When parasites’ are in the gastrointestinal tract of the host, they lay microscopic eggs that are shed in the animal’s feces. Once on the ground in the feces, the eggs hatch into larvae. The larvae are capable of traveling a small distance away from the fecal matter and reside on nearby blades of grass or other plant matter, such as hay that is on the ground. Larvae can be spread by animals walking in their manure and onto nearby grass or feed, which is then ingested by another animal. Once ingested by the sheep or goat, the parasites mature in the gastrointestinal tract into the adult form, and egg-laying resumes. When there is an abundance of parasites in the goat or sheep, they will start to show clinical signs. These clinical signs can range from weight loss, diarrhea, anemia with pale mucous membranes of the eye and mouth, “bottle jaw” (edematous swelling under the jaw), generalized weakness, and eventually death.

Here are some ways to limit parasite problems in a goat herd or a sheep flock. Don’t feed hay on the ground. It helps to feed from racks or feeders and keep these clean. The goal is to limit fecal contamination to feed. Goats have the tendency to want to climb into or on top of feeders, so they may need to be covered or modified to prevent them from stepping in or defecating into the feed. Also, a good idea to clean water troughs and bowels regularly to limit transmission of parasites through fecally contaminated water. Rotational grazing is another way to limit parasite problems. Goats and sheep should be rotated every seven to ten days, particularly during the height of the growing season where warmer temperatures and moisture is maintained.

Exposure to sunlight for three to four weeks will kill many of the remaining parasite larvae, making the pasture safer for sheep and goats to return to graze. Avoid overcrowding as many parasitism problems arise from overstocking, or simply having too many animals in a given section of land. Overcrowding contributes to added stress on the animals as well as added competition among animals held in small confined areas. Lastly avoid malnutrition for sheep and goats are far more capable of coping with gastrointestinal parasites if their nutritional needs are met. Feeding adequate amounts of protein to these animals is particularly important. Also adding garlic and diatomaceous earth to the diet work as a natural source to get rid of parasites. Combining good nutrition and good flock/herd management will greatly diminish the negative effects of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats.

Products of the Week: 

Diatomaceous Earth

Diatomaceous Earth is a naturally-occurring substance. It is the fossilized remains of microscopic shells created by one-celled plants called DIATOMS. It is mined from ancient sea beds and ground to a fine, powder-like consistency. It is believed that the microscopic sharp edges of the Diatomaceous Earth particles scrape off the worm eggs that the adult worms have attached to the sheep’s intestinal walls, so they can pass out with the feces. Midwestern BioAg carries an all-natural Diatomaceous Earth product that is OMRI certified. Our product is a very pure form of Diatomaceous Earth used as an anti-caking feed additive.


Redmond 10 Fine with Garlic

The Redmond 10 Fine with Garlic is a natural garlic mineral salt. Feeding garlic salt can also be used to control internal parasites. It is very palatable making it very easy for livestock to consume. It is very easy and livestock don’t develop resistance to garlic, as they do with other chemical treatments. This product also includes health benefits as well, as it has many trace minerals and antioxidant properties. The Redmond 10 Fine with garlic is the perfect solution to parasite and fly control, as it is delicious, healthy, easy, and it works.

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Honoring Mike Lovlien, BioAg Consultant for 30+ years

If you’ve heard Mike speak, you’ll know his slogan is, “don’t guess, soil test.” He advises against assuming that you know what is going on with your soil – wisdom he has collected from his career.
Starting from the beginning, Mike always had a passion for agriculture since being raised on a dairy farm. He went on to school at Winona Tech in 1975 where Gary Zimmer was one of his instructors. At that time, Gary was giving lots of presentations about natural farming practices and soon founded Midwestern BioAg. In 1989, Mike was hired as a consultant, working part-time doing both farming and consulting. He had a dairy nutrition service route in Minnesota and Wisconsin. 
In November of 1992, Mike left his family’s dairy farm and started his own consulting business, Lovland BioAg. He recalls, “the business then was not the business we have today.” Then, he was doing everything: consulting and spreading product. As his business grew, he hired help. Thinking back to this time, he sees how selling today is easier because, with the shared workload, he had more time for consulting.
In December of 2008, Midwestern BioAg bought Mike’s LovLand BioAg business.
Reflecting on his career, Mike noted a highlight of being involved with studies published in three of Gary Zimmer’s books as well as building 20+ year relationships with customers and seeing their success grow over time.
His advice: pay attention to the small things – weights, measurements (especially with nutrients) and never forget the big three (chemical, physical and biological) elements of the soil. Always remember: it’s not about today’s sales, it’s about future plans and long-term success.
After 30+ years with Midwestern BioAg, Mike will officially retire this fall. His retirement plans are to winter in Arizona, garden and travel as well as volunteer his time with church programs. Mike thanks his wife of 41 years, Cheryl, for being with him through it all and how great of a resource she was when his business was on his own. He is a proud father of 2 and grandfather of 4.
Thank you, Mike, for your dedicated service to Midwestern BioAg. We wish you all the best on your next adventure!

Gary Zimmer (right) presenting Mike Lovlien (left) with a retirement plaque.


From the Desk of Gary Zimmer

Dear farmers and agriculturalists,
It sure seems strange that the corn and bean price can remain so high. If you drive the country, it’s all you see. Does anyone believe the price will stay high forever? The livestock producers and energy makers sure don’t like it. The sad part is the cost of production has gone way up and doesn’t always drop back to where it was when grain prices are reduced.
So, what are you going to do? My suggestion is to become less dependent and more resilient; less dependent on nitrogen, invest in side dress equipment, get set up to add carbon products to your nitrogen (BOOST works great) and do your calcium (it really improves soil structure and resilience). Bio-Cal fits many soils, but get your soils tested. Your BioAg consultant can help. Do the soil correctives as needed this fall; it can cut down on taxes paid and improve your future success. It’s a great time to look at cover crops for improved soil health. Start with the knowledge and the right equipment. You may need a vertical tillage machine, an in-line ripper, all things that help take you to the next level.
I’m a big believer in strip tillage. I went to their conference in Omaha in August. Many of them have been no-till for years and are ecstatic about the change. As they say, it’s like putting a flowerpot under every plant. It also allows you to concentrate your nutrients in the row, but you will need a better source of nutrients (Midwestern BioAg’s) as salts may make things worse. This should save you money while driving yields and success, if done correctly. At our farm, we added chopping heads on the combines saving a stalk shredding trip. This, followed by a vertical tillage pass and rye planting, is setting us up for next year! We also spread compost/manure mineral mix.
Again, driving through the countryside you used to pick out organic farms because of weeds, well that’s not possible anymore. Weeds are everywhere for almost everyone. Improved soil structure, cover crops, different rotation, calcium all help. You are going to need to do something besides add more, and harsher, chemicals. Weed seeds for the most part are little and need tight poor structured soils to do well in. We have studied a strip-till organic system that does a living mulch. Then, when the crop is up knee-high or so, mow the mulch and blow it in the row to not only provide nutrients but also cover weeds. But that’s organic. I see many conventional farmers are looking at our methods. I just did a podcast with the Strip-Till Farmer outlining our system. Look at the economics and see if there are right to make some of these changes and set your future in place. You will need to get cleaner, more efficient and build carbon if your future is farming. Growing more roots, saving carbon (number one step), you have to not only grow more but reduce nitrogen by putting on when and where you need it. Yes, you can burn carbon with excessive tillage, but you also don’t build soil carbon with residues laying on top. Shallow incorporation, deep ripping when needed, as you will also be responsible for what leaves your farm. Surface erosion on many farms is not acceptable (vertical tillage and ripping get water and nutrients in the soil).
Ask your consultant about how Midwestern BioAg can help. Think forward. Have a great fall and get ready for the future. 

Rumen Development in Calves | Bailey’s Bit About Nutrition

When calves are born, they start out as simple stomached animals. The change from one digestive method to another is a process that is called rumen development. The first two compartments make up one large fermentation vat, the third is an unusual-looking organ that absorbs water and minerals from digesta leaving the rumen, and the fourth is the true stomach that functions like the stomach of monogastric (people and pigs). All four of these stomachs are present at birth; however, only the abomasum is fully developed and functional. The reticulum and rumen are sterile at birth, and it’s often several weeks before a constant bacterial population of an adult ruminant.

Calves need to start out on milk and milk replacer. However, milk and milk replacer does not allow for much growth or any maturation of the reticulum and rumen as they are being bypassed. Feed, most notably dry feed, has to remain in the rumen in order to begin the rumen development process. Dry feed, such as calf starter (grain mixtures) or forage, will not pass through the esophageal groove, and thus flows from the esophagus into the reticulum and rumen where digestion begins. Within two or three days of age, start to introduce a dry feed, such as calf starter. Grain is the key element of calf rumen development because of its involvement in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production to support papillae growth. Papillae are the finger-like projections that line the inside of the rumen. Papillae are essential for rumen function, as they increase the surface area for greater potential to absorb nutrients like a champ.

When dry feed enters the rumen, it absorbs water that the calf has consumed. That, along with the anaerobic (absence of oxygen) environment of the rumen, provides a perfect place for bacteria to grow. Calves need to start out on milk and milk replacer. However, milk and milk replacer does not allow for much growth or any maturation of the reticulum and rumen as they are being bypassed. Feed, most notably dry feed, has to remain in the rumen in order to begin the rumen development process. Dry feed, such as calf starter (grain mixtures) or forage, will not pass through the esophageal groove, and thus flows from the esophagus into the reticulum and rumen where digestion begins. Within two or three days of age, start to introduce a dry feed, such as calf starter.

Grain is the key element of calf rumen. As these bacteria grow and metabolize nutrients, they produce volatile fatty acids. The primary volatile fatty acids produced in the rumen are acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. This acid production lowers the pH of the rumen and establishes an even better environment for bacteria to continue their growth, especially for bacteria that digest starch and produce propionic and butyric acids.

Calf starter feeds contain carbohydrates in the form of starch which is fermented by bacteria that produce propionic and butyric acids. When forages are digested, due to the different species of bacteria that digest fiber, the primary end product is acetic acid. Acetic and propionic acids are absorbed through the rumen wall and are taken up by the blood and pass through the liver to be made into metabolites that can be used for energy sources by the calf. However, butyric acid is not absorbed through the rumen wall, and the cells of the rumen wall have an alternative metabolic process that allows butyric acid to be converted into an energy source for use by the cells in the rumen wall. Thus, butyric acid produced in the rumen primarily provides energy for the growth of the rumen wall. Acetic and propionic acids provide energy for the entire calf, part of which is shared to the rumen wall, but overall compared to butyric acid, much less acetic and propionic acids are used to fuel rumen development.

Once a significant amount of starter or grain is consumed by the calf each day (approximately 0.25 to 0.4 lb per day), it takes about 3 weeks to then develop the rumen to the point that this digestive organ by itself has an established microbial population and enough absorption capacity to allow the calf to continue normal growth once milk or milk replacer is stopped (weaning). If liquid feeds are removed before rumen development has occurred, the calf will not grow and may even lose body weight for 1 to 3 weeks until the time that the rumen is developed. Early grain introduction allows their small, non-functioning rumen to grow into the healthy, functional site of nutrient breakdown and absorption as a productive cow.

Product of the Week: “O” BioBaby Mixer Pellet

“O” BioBaby Mixer Pellet is a high-quality protein supplement formulated to mix with corn and oats for a complete calf starter.

Product Characteristics: 

                • Contains BioBaby Premix vitamins and minerals
                • Provides top-quality plant protein sources
                • Contains kelp as a source of over 60 trace minerals and vitamins.
                • Helps promote reproductive health, immune system function, and hoof
                • Contains yeast culture and live, beneficial bacteria


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Why feed kelp to your herd?

Kelp is a natural feed supplement that is packed full of bioavailable minerals and vitamins. Kelp can be fed to cattle, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, and even chicken. Feeding kelp to livestock is an excellent source in filling in micronutrient deficiencies so the herd can improve digestion functions, reproductively, and their immune system. Healthier animals equal better productivity.
Here at Midwestern BioAg we provide Thorvin Kelp. Thorvin Kelp contains a broad array of bioavailable minerals, amino acids, and vitamins for superior metabolic health. Thorvin is the leading organic feed supplement that is 100% all-natural with no additives. They dry their products slowly with geothermal energy to hold in all the natural minerals and vitamins without cooking and burning them out. Throvin compared to other kelp has the highest selenium content where other kelp products can’t even put selenium on their label for the content is so small. That is why Thorvin is the most nutrient-dense kelp-based ingredient on the market. Selenium is an essential trace element for livestock. Selenium is required for normal growth, fertility, and improve immune system function.
Thorvin delivers more nutrients per pound so it only takes small amounts to help fill micronutrient deficiencies. The benefits of feeding Thorvin to your herd include improved reproduction health, improved calf development, improved immune and thyroid function, and prevents disease. Thorvin Kelp enhances cattle performance as it contains selenium and zinc, which supports breed back and weight gain. Thorvin kelp also supports animal health, for It contains zinc and iodine, which prevents foot rot and also contains copper and selenium that prevents pink eye. Thorvin delivers more iodine and lower moisture per pound. Thorvin kelp can be blended into a ration or feed free-choice – alone or with salt. Thorvin for animals contributes to lower vet bills and helping to keep livestock at their healthy best. 
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From the Ground Up | Fall 2021

Fall 2021 Newsletter

Goat Nutrition | Bailey’s Bit About Nutrition

Goats are small ruminant animals that have no upper incisors or canine teeth but a dental pad instead. The rumen is the largest part of the four stomach compartments, with a capacity of roughly 2-6 pounds. Some bacteria and protozoa are normal habitants of the rumen which break down food into volatile fatty acids along with vitamins and amino acids. Daily feed take of goats ranges from 3-4% of body weight as expressed in pounds (dry matter/head/day).

Goats are able to digest a large variety of fiber and roughages. Goats are efficient browsers and prefer eating brushy plants found on ranges. The nutrient requirements of goats are determined by age, sex, breed, production system (dairy or meat), body size, climate and physiological stage. Feeding strategies should be able to meet energy, protein, mineral, and vitamin needs depending on the condition of the goats. Goats do not depend on intensive feeding systems except some supplemental feeding during growth, lactation, pregnancy and winter. When goats are lactating for an extended period of time (i.e., 10 months), they will require supplemental feeding on a higher plane of nutrition (e.g., dairy quality second cut alfalfa hay and grain ration). Goat diets require essential nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fats. Sugars, starches (found in grains) and fiber (cellulose) are the carbohydrates that convert into volatile fatty acids (energy) by rumen flora (beneficial bacteria).

A normal goat diet (browse, forbs, and grasses) is high in cellulose and requires digestion by rumen flora to be converted into energy. Fresh pastures and young plants may have highly digestible fiber and provide high energy compared to older plants. Higher energy levels come from lower fiber feeds. It is important to supply half of the goat ration in the form of hay or pasture to avoid high energy-related problems.  Energy requirements for different physiological stages – maintenance, pregnancy, lactation and growth – vary. In the time of breeding, late gestation and lactation, goats will require high-energy rations. Proteins are digested and broken down into amino acids and are eventually absorbed in the small intestine. Those amino acids are building blocks for proteins (muscles). The rumen plays a major role in breaking down consumed protein into bacterial protein through bacterial fermentation.

Feeds like forages, hays, pellets (alfalfa), barley, peas, corn, oats, distilled grains and meals (soybean, canola, cottonseed meals) are common sources of protein for goat rations. Goats need certain minerals and vitamins for their maintenance as well as the proper functioning of their physiological systems. Rumen flora can make vitamin B in enough quantities needed for goat metabolism. Vitamin C is essential for the immune system to work efficiently. Feeding fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) must be insured in a goat’s diet due to its inability to make these vitamins. Feeding calcium and phosphorus (2:1 ratio) is recommended for better structural and bone strength, while other minerals are necessary for other systems like the nervous and reproductive. Minerals should be added into the feed keeping in mind the quality of forages as some forages can be high in some minerals and low in others.

Facts about Goats

  • Goats have a gestation period of five months and the average birth rate for goats is 2 kids per year.
  • Baby goats are called Female goats are called a doe. Male goats are called a buck or billy.
  • Each kid has a unique call, and along with its scent, that is how its mother recognizes it from birth – not by sight.
  • Goats pupils are This gives them vision for 320 to 340 degrees (compared to humans with 160-210) around them without having to move and they are thought to have excellent night vision.
  • Both male and females have wattles as well. Wattles are bits of skin that dangle from their head or neck. 
  • Goats are extremely agile and excellent climbers with great balance.
  • Goat meat is lower in fat and cholesterol compared to beef, pork and poultry.
  • Like sheep, goats are seasonal The typical breeding season is between late August and early January.
  • Many dairy goats, in their prime, average 6 to 8 pounds of milk daily (roughly 3 to 4 quarts).


Product of the Week: Capri-Cal, Calcium Capsule for Goats


              • Designed to support both calcium and energy requirements in does, thus minimizing effects from hypocalcemia and
              • Multiple calcium sources both absorb rapidly into the bloodstream and maintain calcium supply longer term.
              • Highly available forms of Magnesium facilitate blood calcium regulation.
              • Vitamin D plays a key role in calcium absorption and regulation.
              • Fatty acids serve as energy sources that can be metabolized by the liver to meet glucose
              • Niacin supports liver functions



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Measuring your soil health like never before

Midwestern BioAg recently partnered with Trace Genomics in order to adopt the most advanced commercially available soil testing in the industry. Trace Genomics is a soil testing company that provides a full chemical as well as 21 biology and pathology analyses. Midwestern BioAg will be implementing these analyses to improve our scouting and recommendations to our customers.

Midwestern BioAg has been promoting biological farming for nearly 40 years. We’ve known from our extensive time as crop and soil consultants that biology is equally as important as soil physical and chemical properties. However, until recently, measuring and demonstrating our effects on soil biology has been mostly recognizable through improved crop performance. Most changes to soil biology happen on a longer timeline and are sometimes not immediately apparent or have been historically difficult to detect. With improvements in soil analytics, we can better understand the impact that management practices have on soil biology. 

By partnering with Trace Genomics, we can now track numerous soil health metrics on our customers’ farms such as changes to soil bacterial populations, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, active soil carbon, and total organic carbon among many other important parameters. Through measuring populations of Anthracnose, Rhizoctonia, and other significant soil-borne diseases, we can more accurately scout and predict disease pressure. Total organic carbon is an important component of soil health and will increasingly be used for verifying soil carbon accumulations, leading to other sources of revenue for our customers through carbon trading. 

In summary, Midwestern BioAg can now quantify and characterize the positive changes to soil biology our customers have come to appreciate. This will equate to improved soil biology and health for our customers’ fields, making their farms more resilient and profitable. 

Speak with your BioAg representative about how to get your field sampled and analyzed using the power of Trace Genomics.  

A Look at Trace Genomics Insights